A taxonomy of tools that support the fluent and flexible use of visualizations
JEFFREY HEER, STANFORD UNIVERSITY
BEN SHNEIDERMAN, UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, COLLEGE PARK
The increasing scale and availability of digital data provides an extraordinary resource for informing public policy, scientific discovery, business strategy, and even our personal lives. To get the most out of such data, however, users must be able to make sense of it: to pursue questions, uncover patterns of interest, and identify (and potentially correct) errors. In concert with data-management systems and statistical algorithms, analysis requires contextualized human judgments regarding the domain-specific significance of the clusters, trends, and outliers discovered in data.